A Chinese Kilo with the red flag Date 15 August 2007 (original upload date) Source Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Liftarn using CommonsHelper. Author Original uploader was Took-ranch at en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this file) CC-BY-SA-3.0-MIGRATED; Released into the public domain (by the author); Released under the GNU Free Documentation License. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_Kilo_in_service.jpg

Satellite surveillance has detected the activation of Russia’s 636-class submarines, commonly referred to as Kilo-class, indicating their departure from the Novorossiysk docks. Analysis suggests these submarines may have submerged and left their base, based on imagery circulated across various networks since June 6.

Observations reveal a significant operational shift within the Russian Black Sea Fleet, with the entire warship contingent appearing to be in combat readiness. Additional satellite imagery indicates that at least 24 Kalibr missiles were launched simultaneously by three missile-carrying corvettes.

Strategic positioning of some vessels within the main channel of Novorossiysk, ranging from 500 meters to 2.5 kilometers from the naval dock entrance, suggests a deliberate tactical dispersion strategy, possibly aimed at overlapping anti-aircraft sectors.

Recent naval maneuvers in Novorossiysk demonstrate a notable change in deployment patterns, with warships transitioning from berths within the naval base to strategic positions in the bay. Concurrently, other ships have been observed sailing in formation towards Crimea.

The Kilo-class submarines, designated as Project 877 Paltus, are diesel-electric attack submarines renowned for their stealth capabilities, earning them the nickname ‘Black Holes’ by NATO. Designed and constructed by the Rubin Design Bureau in St. Petersburg, these submarines have been in active service since the early 1980s, undergoing several upgrades over the years.

With dimensions of approximately 74 meters in length, 9.9 meters in beam, and 6.2 meters in draft, the Kilo-class submarines possess a displacement of around 2,300 tons when surfaced and 3,950 tons when submerged. Their versatile size enables effective operations in both shallow and deep waters, facilitating a range of mission profiles.

Powered by a diesel-electric propulsion system comprising two diesel generators and one electric motor, these submarines boast speeds of 10-12 knots when surfaced and 17-25 knots when submerged. Operating with a range of approximately 6,000 to 7,500 nautical miles at 7 knots, they can sustain submerged operations for up to 45 days, catering to diverse mission requirements.

Kilo-class submarines are outfitted with advanced sonar and electronic warfare systems, including the MGK-400 Rubikon sonar system, which comprises both passive/active bow-mounted sonar and towed array sonar for detecting enemy vessels. Radar warning receivers and electronic support measures further enhance their situational awareness and survivability.

Onboard systems include navigation, fire control, and communication systems, utilizing inertial navigation systems (INS) and GPS for precise positioning. The fire control system integrates data from sensors to manage weaponry effectively, while communication systems feature VLF and HF radios for secure communication with command centers.

Armed with torpedoes, mines, and cruise missiles, Kilo-class submarines deploy six 533 mm torpedo tubes capable of launching both torpedoes and anti-ship missiles like the 3M-54 Klub (SS-N-27 Sizzler). They can carry up to 18 torpedoes or a combination of torpedoes and missiles, and conduct naval mine deployments for area denial.

Kilo-class submarines are strictly conventional, lacking nuclear propulsion or nuclear weapons, relying solely on diesel-electric propulsion.

In operational history, the deployment of Kilo-class submarines at the Russian naval facility in Tartus, Syria, included launching 3M54 Kalibr cruise missiles at land targets within Syria in 2015. Notably, the B-237 Rostov-on-Don fired cruise missiles against an enemy for the first time on December 8, 2015, striking targets near Raqqa, then considered the ISIS capital.

During the Russo-Ukraine War, the B-871 Alrosa, a pump-jet Kilo-class submarine, participated, drawing significant attention following the sinking of the Russian cruiser Moskva in April 2022. Amidst the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Kilo-class submarines were the only vessels in the Black Sea Fleet allowed to venture into Ukrainian waters near Odesa.

After the Crimea attacks in early 2022, Kilo-class submarines were relocated from Sevastopol to the Port of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai, as reported by the UK Ministry of Defense in September. A year later, on September 13, 2023, the B-237 Rostov-on-Don sustained severe damage from a Ukrainian Storm Shadow missile strike while drydocked in Sevastopol.